This project was begun by Kurt Goblirsch, continued by Martha B.
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Mayou, and completed with Ari Hoptman and Nathan E. Carlson and the help of numerous assistants. Copyright by the Regents of the University of Minnesota All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
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Includes bibliographical references. ISBN hc : alk. English language—Etymology—Bibliography.
Hoptman, Ari. Carlson, Nathan E. E85L53 [PE] The Project The idea of writing a new etymological dictionary of English goes back to and owes its existence to chance.
A Bibliography of English Etymology: Sources and Word List
While casting about portugees zinnen flirten its origin, I remembered the English word heifer portugees zinnen flirten wondered whether hei- had anything to do with hei Although heifer appears in Skeat, The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology, the OED, Weekley, and Partridge, they all say somewhat different things about its history, whereas the less specialized dictionaries give only the Old English form and call heifer a word of unknown origin.
Professor J. More important than familiarizing myself with a reasonable hypothesis on the derivation of heifer in a book that my friend portugees zinnen flirten was the fact that I accidentally discovered Wedgwood. The question arose whether I was ignorant of some other hidden treasures.
Further searches produced a long list of little known and forgotten etymological dictionaries of English. My work on the origin of heifer consisted not so much of weighing various suggestions as portugees zinnen flirten trying to find out the literature on that word.
Outside the area of English, most modern etymological dictionaries are analytic, that is, their authors discuss every word with reference to earlier scholarship, cite their sources, and offer hypotheses in agreement with or in defiance of their predecessors.
Some surveys are detailed, others are brief, but even the shortest of them are useful. Therefore, an portugees zinnen flirten of English etymology is left without bibliographical clues and always has to begin from scratch. Even a list of the books to be consulted is hard to generate. Nor are they available at every major library.
It now has all of them.
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When my work on heifer came portugees zinnen flirten an end a premature end from my current perspectiveI realized that if I ever decided to write another etymology, I would again have to start looking through countless bibliographies on the off chance of finding something useful.
Spending half a year on one word is a generous allowance, considering how few half-years most of us are allotted, that is, in comparison with the number of words in any language. Such a dictionary is long overdue, portugees zinnen flirten I decided to write one myself. The main task was to put together a bibliography of everything published in journals and collections of papers about the origin single party zwickau English words.
From then on, the compilation work on the bibliography and the writing of etymologies became my responsibility.
The bibliography has now reached a stage at which it, in my opinion, deserves publication, and a volume of fifty-five etymologies drawing on the amassed data has recently appeared Anatoly Liberman, with the assistance of J.
Minneapolis, London: University of Minnesota Press, Only one exhaustive etymological bibliography seems to exist. B 36, by Kai Donner; pp.
A less ambitious venture was Harold H. His list of sources, in addition to the dictionaries mentioned in the title, takes up two pages portugees zinnen flirten, the earliest book he excerpted is dated and the latest, Some time ago, Swedish etymologists began to compile a database of references to the origins of Swedish words; unfortunately, the project was discontinued. Similar databases must exist in portugees zinnen flirten centers of etymological research, but except for the Finnish Verzeichnis.
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The Choice of Works and Words From a bibliographical point of view, etymology has blurred contours. Apparently, not all the works written on the Slavic cognates of plow, when they address Old Slavic semantics, morphology, and phonetics, are of equal importance to a student of Germanic and English. On a more limited scale, one wonders how much information on the origin of Latin frango is relevant for the etymology of English break.
Words with connections in and outside Indo-European, such as numerals and kin terms, are especially problematic, for the scholarly literature on them is inexhaustible. Yet in dealing with Gothic vocabulary, portugees zinnen flirten should be on reconstructing distant etymons; this cannot always be the case with a living language. Even in studying the oldest words preserved in Modern English, it is debatable to what extent a bibliography like the present one should take note of the works on infixes and laryngeals.
Not all of them are of much use for the etymology of two. Doubts of portugees zinnen flirten different type arise in connection with works on historical phonetics, morphology, and semantics.
On the other hand, break is a crown witness of the alleged unpredictability of phonetic change, and every major contribution to the Great Vowel Shift has something to say on the pronunciation of great and steak surprisingly, they rhyme with rate and rake instead of beat and bleak. In addition, Old English brekan displays a morphological irregularity: it belongs to the fourth class despite a postvocalic obstruent in its root.
Even those sharing the most liberal view of the subject of etymology will probably admit that only part of the literature involving the history of break needs to be considered in an English etymological dictionary.
The same holds for semantics.
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Numerous articles and books are devoted to Old, Middle, and Early Modern English usage, but despite their emphasis on older periods, their orientation is synchronic. Works on such subjects stayed outside the bibliography. The articles that deal with the cognates of English words and aberrations from the expected pattern have been included but not those that merely cite related forms to illustrate a phonetic correspondence for example, Old English brecan — Old High German brehhan — Gothic brikan.